суббота, 5 марта 2011 г.
The Monarchical Conference in Moscow
The bondage was abolished in Russia on 19 February 1861 (under Julian calendar). This reform is known in Russia as the Great Reform of 1861. On the 150th anniversary of this event, on 4 March 2011 the conference “Monarchical Idea at the 21st Century” was organised in Moscow by the Russian State University of Commerce and Economics (under the patronage of the Head of the Russian Imperial House Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna), the Movement For Faith and Fatherland, and the Russian Nobility Assembly. Such conference was organised in the fourth time, former it was held in 2004, 2007, and 2009.
The addresses to the participants of the conference were sent by the Head of the Russian Imperial House Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna and the Russian Orthodox Church. They were announced before the beginning of the conference.
The first report was made by Vice-Chairman of the Russian History Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences Mr Vladimir Lavrov, Dr. Hab. Mr Lavrov refuted a lot of misconceptions made by Communists in the history of the Great Reform of 1861. In particular he emphasized that the reform was in close connection with the decisions of predecessors of Emperor Alexander II. Emancipation of peasants was begun in 1797 by Emperor Paul I, to 1861 only 28% of peasants were under the bondage. The main reason of the reform was moral, religious desire of the Emperor to see his subjects as free people, and the desire to help the development of Russia due to the reform. There were no risk of any revolution in Russia that time. The success of the reform was fully connected with its compromise nature: it took into consideration the interests of both sides the nobility and the peasants. The success of the Great Reform helped the Emperor Alexander II to realise the reforms of municipal governments, courts, and the army.
The Personal Secretary of Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna Sir Alexander Zakatov, PhD, made a report about the necessity to overcome the legacy of the Civil War of 1917 – 1922, and to find compromise between the Reds and the Whites. The Dynasty didn’t participate in the Civil War, it was independent. It gives to the Dynasty the possibility to be the centre of the national consolidation. As an example Mr Zakatov cited the words of Grand Duke Vladimir Kirillovich (the Head of the Russian Imperial House in 1938 – 1992), who was against the destruction of the Soviet heritage, but called for evolution of the social and state system of Russia at the post-Soviet stage.
The Chancellor of the Russian State University of Commerce and Economics Sir Sergey Baburin, Dr. Hab., emphasized that monarchical ideas became in Russia much more popular, than they were 20 years ago. It connected with dissatisfaction of the vast majority of people in democracy, which is a fully bankrupt in Russia. The monarchy can be the institute which will help the Russian people to revive the empire at the new stage taking as an example the experience of the Commonwealth of Nations. Also Mr Baburin compared the reforms of 1860s and current reforms. Nowadays liberal reforms in Russia emancipate people from their property. It is their main reason and aim. That is why the Russian people are not satisfied with the democracy and the Constitution which announces it. Mr Baburin announced his idea to summon the Constitutional Assembly to debate the idea of the restoration of the monarchy. Being the Vice-Chairman of the Russian State Duma (the lower chamber of the Russian Parliament) in 2003 – 2007 Mr Baburin was the author of the appropriate bill draft, unfortunately it was failed by the ruling majority.
Very interesting report was made by Mr Igor Chubais, Dr. Hab. (the eldest brother of a famous Russian politician Mr Anatoly Chubais). In the opinion of Mr Chubais, the main problem of the Russians nowadays is the lack of skill to study the lessons of history. The lose in the Crimean War of 1853 – 1856 was not awful for Russia, but the Emperor and the ruling elite studied the lesson and implemented very ambitious reforms soon, including the Great Reform of 1861. Twenty years ago the USSR collapsed, but the Russians didn’t study the lesson and try to revive the Communists forms and categories. It is foolishness and a great mistake. Also Mr Chubais paid the attention that the bondage in Russia was not the slavery. The peasant under the bondage have had personal rights, they could have families, could be owners of property, to be entrepreneurships and to buy the liberty, they could file an action against their masters. There were examples when the police arrested masters because of violation of the peasants’ rights by such masters. The peasants should work for master not more than three days a week. The specific of Russia was that all estates (the nobility, the clergy, the merchants, the peasants) were not free, they should serve to the state. The less freedom the nobility have got, because all lives the noble men should serve to the state as military or civil officers. The emancipation of estates began in 1785, when the nobility took the right not to serve, and was finished in 1861 when such right the peasants took too. As well as Mr Lavrov, Mr Chubais said that the main reason of the reform’s success was its compromise nature, what was a big achievement of the monarchy.
Famous Russian writer and historian Mr Alexander Goryanin announced very interesting data: in the USA a slave was working for a master for 4000 hours per year, when in Russia a peasant in bondage was working for a master only for 700 hours per year.
The Office Chairman of the Movement For Faith and Fatherland and the Director of the Moscow Department of the Russian Imperial Union-Order Mr Anton Liubich, MA, made a report about the connection of the monarchy as the institution with the economic development of a nation. The monarchy is interested in increase of the national economy’s capitalisation more, than in the increase of current earnings. It distinguished the monarchy from the democracy. The monarchy guarantees safety of the long-term investments. And the monarchy because of its nature is interested in decrease of the bureaucracy. Due to all these reasons the monarchy as the institution helps to the long-term economic growth. In the end of the speech Mr Liubich announced different data corroborated these statements.
The last report was made by the State Duma member Mr Sergey Gavrilov. He criticised the nowadays reforms in Russia. They repeat the unsuccessful experience of the 1990s reforms. It is a big danger for Russia and its existence as the state. The reforms of 1860s helped to development of the nation, but nowadays we see the degradation of the state institutions, the economic system, and the huge emigration, especially of the youth.
About 15 reports were made at the conference.
The cooperation between the Russian State University of Commerce and Economics and the monarchical organisations will be continued.